The university was founded in 1921 by the dental faculty of Kharkiv Medical Academy. In 1967, it moved to the city of Poltava and was
renamed the Poltava Ukrainian Medical Stomatological (oral medicine) Academy (PUMSA). In 1994, the university received the sixth-highest accreditation level because of its low death rate during
surgery and was renamed Poltava State Medical University (PSMU). As of 2004, PSMU had a level-IV accreditation.
PSMU occupies sixteen buildings, including five academic buildings, four dormitories, apartments, a vivarium, hangars, a library, reading rooms, a sports complex, a dining room, a cafe, and a health and sports camp.